Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Butler S Lifecycle Model
The Butler S Lifecycle Model Balearic Islands consist of four island which are A, B, C and Mallorca. Mallorca is the largest island of the Balearic archipelago which accounts for nearly three quarters of the land with 80% of its population in Balearic Island (Bull 1997, 140). It area has covered about 3640 kilometer per square with the 555 km of the total coast length of the island (Garcia and Servera 2003, 288). The climate of Mallorca is typically Mediterranean with moderate average temperatures. During the summer, the dry and warm season takes place. The annual rainfalls are 625 mm, with average temperature 16 celcius and 18 celcious except in the high mountain. With its favorable climate, extensive coastline and attractive beaches have lured visitors for many centuries. The butlers lifecycle model (1980), describes the growth, stagnation and decline phases of a tourist destination can be best apply in the destination of Mallorca from the growth stage to post-stagnation stage. In the period of exploration and involvement stages of Butlers model which started in 1930s tourism takes place in Mallorca act merely as an instrument for stimulating cultural and intellectual activity (Bull 1997, 141). Early development stage 1955s When it comes to 1955 Mallorca Island is in development stage where mass tourism started to grow during that period. There was a re-establishment of the tourist board that have significantly change the tourism on the island whereby the tourism become more closely associated with the development of package holidays and mass tourism from the growing markets in western and northern Europe (Pearce 1991 and Williams 1997). However in 1959, Spanish government took the initiate to simplify the procedure of visiting the country in order to modernize the Spanish economy through tourism by gaining overseas revenue (Stabilisation Act of 1959). The numbers of visitors started to growth constantly in early 1960s, majority of the visitors were dominated from UK and Germany in large volumes concentrated especially during summer season (Clark 1988) (Figure 1). Consolidation stage-1980s-1990s Between 1960s-1980s the consequences from the boom of international tourism to Mallorca, it led to an intensive resort development of the along the coastline. Most of the island originated from the rapid growth of cheap package holidays in the 1960s. However in the late of 1970s, many buildings, resorts and apartments were built in order to cater large numbers of visitors and growing number of the populations. Majority of these early resorts were portrayed by standard high-rise architecture, short of proper infrastructure and lack of planning, which are typical of the consolidation stages of Butlers model. Buswell (1996, 321) has described the growth of tourist resolution on Mallorca as unplanned and piecemeal, even chaotic. After that resorts have been subject matter to stricter planning laws which set up in the 1980s and 1990s. Subsequently Mallorca has maintained its popularity with tourists, particularly from UK and Germany moreover constantly attracts more than 10 m visitors per annum (Buswell 1996 and Government Balear 2003) Stagnation and Decline stage-1990s-2000s In late 1990s, environmental pressures begin to emerge in Mallorca regarding to the issue such as water shortages, climate change, overcrowding, and over commercialization as well as anti-social behavior by its visitors. This eventually causes an overall of decline in number of visitors arrive to its destination. In provisions of destination life cycle dynamics, the tourism product of Mallorca was beginning to stagnate and decline and required management planning and policy intervention to bring about its rejuvenation (Butler, 1980). Development of Mass tourism in Calvia, Mallorca CalviÃ ¡ is a municipality of Mallorca which is also one of the largest tourism receiving areas. It accounted about one third of the total flow of tourists to Balearic Islands. It covers 145 kmÃ ² and has a coastal strip of 56 Km of beaches and cliffs which make it as absolutely suitable destination for mass tourism. It offers accommodation for 120,000 bedspaces and with approximately up to 1.6 million visitors a year (Aguilo, Algere and Sard, 2005). Furthermore, with its location in tiny distance from the airport of Palma creates an easily accessible to the visitors. The population of the resident increased from 3000 in habitants during 1960 up to 30,000 in the late nineties (Dodds 2007). Since 19th century, tourism began to be as main economic activity of its island (Ministerio de Economia y Hacienda, 2005). Tourism development in CalviÃ ¡ boomed in the 1960s and has been based on short-term economic gain. As Aguilo et al. (2005) states, it was one of the first municipalities to experience negative effects of mass tourism. Lack of planning regulations resulted in urban sprawl and lack of environmental regard, similar to many Mediterranean resorts. The model of tourism development in Mallorca has been based on short-term interest, unlimited building out of tune with local conditions, and an unsustainable exploitation of exceptional natural resources. Tourist development took place in 1960s to 1980s and was hasty and unplanned. Economy In economic point of view, tourism is important as it create job opportunities, infrastructure development as well as foreign exchange. The unemployment rate is much lower than national average (Ministerio de Trabajo 2005) as there are about 31,793 people employed in restaurant-bars, 2057 in means of transportation rental, 483 in supermarkets, 398 people employed in souvenir shops and another 1,684 work in other tourist facilities. Meanwhile 1,402 involved in beach business and 18,003 are involved in providing tourist activities. It has been estimated that CalviÃ ¡ owns a total number of 61749 vacancies providing tourist activities (Molz 2004). It has 30% higher income per capital of national and 5% higher of E.U. levels (Ministerio de Economia y Hacienda 2005). Looking at these figures it becomes absolutely obvious 85% of Balearic Islands GNP is from tourist industry, and tourism is the major source of income for the municipality of CalviÃ ¡. Therefore its economy is entirely reli ant upon it. From the statistics numbers given, it can be conclude that there is high number of labour force joining the labour market, the tourist monoculture especially during the peak seasonal pattern, labour with a low salary system, and pressure of work during high season (Local Agenda 21 2001). Socio culture impact While tourism provides certain economic benefits to a region at least in the short term, it also causes disturbance to the local way of life. For the locals the concerns may derive due to the unfulfilled promises, destruction of an older and simpler way of life, inadequacy of employment opportunities or dissatisfaction with the economic changes which came with mass tourism development. Before tourism takes place, CalviÃ ¡ was fundamentally a poor and rural area with little outside contact and general history of emigration with its own language and culture of Catalan roots (Ruzza 2004). However tourism has wholly altered these features; a vast number of immigration from the Spanish peninsula arrived to fulfill the demand for labour created by the growth of mass tourism, particularly in the building industry and the hotel business. Consequent to that the temporary immigrant population, has gradually turn into resident, eventually this causes the loss of cultural identity, conflict over language issues, and lack of social integration within local and immigrant population and tiny participation in local social life. Although CalviÃ ¡ is Spains richest municipality and one of the richest in Europe, it has the lowest level of education in Spain which itself the lowest in Europe (Ayuntament de CalviÃ ¡ 1995). Besides, majority of employment are for waiters and house cleaner which are lack of trained skilled professionals. Consequences of too many visitors Reason tourist choose CalviÃ ¡ as holiday destination The persistence of the sun and sand model (2005, 222), describes that the reason induces tourists to choose the particular sun and sand destination include the climate of 76.2%, the beaches (51.2%), the price (36.4%), and the quality of the hotels (22.2%). Among all, climate is the fundamental reason followed by the beaches which induces tourists for choosing such destination. As a result CalviÃ ¡ received a growing number of visitors who travel to a mass tourism holiday destination attracted by the sun, beaches and the climate. CalviÃ ¡ were seen as a model based on value, in terms of price competition it has lure many visitors especially from UK and German with it standardization of the holiday experience (CIITIB, 2002). Social impact For the local point of view, visitors seem to utilize the physical environment from the local however the profit that generated from the visitors are not share with the local community. Thus it create adverse impacts on livelihoods and lack of benefit sharing with the local people who will bear tourism related costs to both the human and natural environment. Eventually conflicts arise between local populations with vast number of visitors as they need to compete for limited use of resources such as water, sanitation, energy and land uses. For tourists the view is often recapitulate with the statements such as this used to be a paradise but now it is ruined because of overcrowding, over commercialization or overdevelopment. The mass tourism tackiness and the variety of problems experienced in CalviÃ ¡ have too often created blemish alongside beautiful natural scenery; crowded with large numbers of tourists as if they were many cattle; ruined traditional cultures and occupational patterns by creating a insidious tourism industry characterized by low paying service jobs and manipulative values; and ignored the needs of local citizens and the community values that were inconsistent with pragmatic economic requirements of the tourism industry. Environmental impact The risen numbers of visitors and residents have immense environmental pressure in CalviÃ ¡. As mentioned in butlers life cycle, Mallorca was in the period of stagnation in 1990s may lay on the line by emerging environmental pressure particularly water shortages and climatic change. Inadequate water supply The issue of inadequate water supply especially during peak period and summer season, water supplies is exacerbated by visitors flows for use in hotels, swimming pools and golf course. According to the statistic documented in 1995, the water consumption by visitors amounted of 160 liters per day whereby resident is only 130 liters. High demand in energy consumption Annual consumption of primary energy in CalviÃ ¡ amount to 72,000 TEP per year of which only 2% is renewable. However, the consumption per day was 6.47 kwh and visitors consumption amounted to 2.14 kwh per night stay in a hotel (Dodds 2007). Pollution by Transports The emissions of carbon dioxide equaled 1,400,000 tones which 58% is due to transporting tourist in and out of Mallorca. In CalviÃ ¡ 1995 statistic,70 million journeys per year where 50 million where from visitors which are a major cause of traffic congestion. Urban waste In 1995 CalviÃ ¡ produced 41000 tones of urban waste with approximately 1.25 kg per resident / day however 1kg per visitors per day. Moreover the options for disposal were limited. The production of wastewater and solid waste in visitor areas often surpass the carrying capacity of local infrastructure due the high seasonal demand. Deterioration of the Land use Building development in CalviÃ ¡ has been excessive with mass occupation of sandy beaches and important enclaves along the rocky coastline. With over 60% of CalviÃ ¡ territory was affected by soil erosion. There was continuous land occupation by urbanization and development of new infrastructure damage caused by quarries and waste dumps and devastation by forest fire. According to an accounting of the distribution of the entire area of CalviÃ ¡ made by Schmitt () in 1991 the build-up-area has quadrupled in the years from 1968 to 1991 (+311.6%). However 57% of archaeological heritage were at high risk of deterioration. Overcrowded beach Almost 80% of the analyzed cases show overcrowding despite an urban beach or natural beach. There is a strong seasonal concentration of visitors between June and September because of the demand for sun and beaches. Subsequently this led to overcrowded beach with less than 6 mÃ ² of beach surface per person with increasing anthropogenic pressure over the coastal zone (Garcia and Jaume 2003, 287). Solution CalviÃ ¡ is an example of a mass tourism destination which, from a result of tourism pressure in the late 1980s, faced significant economic, social and environmental decline. As mentioned by Butler (1993) tourism is an activity because of its reliance upon the maintenance of natural environment and natural processes, should lent itself toward sustainable development. In the case of CalviÃ ¡ the decrease of tourism numbers and Balearic Island as a whole driven regulations and efforts to move towards addressing the problems of the degradation of the environment, deterioration of social systems and facilities and the threat of further tourism decline. Definition of Planning and Policy The definition of planning is extremely ambiguous and difficult to define. Chadwick (1971, 24) states that planning is a process of human thought with an action based upon the thought in point of fact, forethought, thought for the future, nothing more or less than this is planning. Meanwhile Hall (2008, 90) supported Chadwicks ideas to conclude that most important aspect of planning is that it is directed towards the future. However, planning cannot be accomplished without policy because it is closely related terms. Wilkinson (1997) linked planning and policy by stating planning is a course of action, whereas policy is the implementation of the planned course of action. Planning and policy in the case of CalviÃ ¡ CalviÃ ¡ Plan for tourist Excellent 1990 The plan was developed in 1990 as to target the threat of decline. It comes along with the Balearic Autonomous community in cooperation with the municipalities as to modernize, improve and diversify the tourism. This plan included building clearance to regain open space, try to counterbalance the seasonal nature of tourism and training and employment. However this plan is mainly focused on the industry supply side instead of sustainability of the destination and host community did not involve at all. As a result, it did not attempt to overcome the growing issues that have arisen. CalviÃ ¡ Local Agenda 21 (LA21) 1995 At the end of 1994, the Town council of CalviÃ ¡, together with a range of working groups, drew up the Local Agenda 21 for CalviÃ ¡ as a long term strategies integrated with economic, social, territorial and environment actions. In formulating LA21 in 1995 and Action Plan in 1997, the Municipality of CalviÃ ¡ actively involved the support of local community, all the stakeholders, NGO as well as national and EU governments. The key objectives for LA21 CalviÃ ¡ concentrating on entering a new culture based on sustainable and participatory urban and tourism planning; emphasize environmental management of the destination, look for for agreement and consensus with social representatives, control development and act for more stable employment in the area. (CalviÃ ¡ Agenda Local 21, Mallorca, Spain 2004). In 1998 New Balearic Law in CalviÃ ¡ was set out as to limit accommodation growth, restore existing hotels and to protect 40% of natural areas. The objectives of the LA21 comprises of 10 strategic lines of action and 40 initiatives. Key results that have been achieved since the implementation of CalviÃ ¡s 1997 plan The LA21 Action Plan which were set out in 1997 were seems to have improvement in a general movement toward sustainability within the region and as CalviÃ ¡ is fairly autonomous, it was able to adopt and implement many initiatives without the need for collaboration from higher government. Among those key results that have been achieved since the implementation of the LA21 action plan are stated below: Planning and Regeneration Zero increase in number of hotels and apartments as well as drop of 200 beds 1993-2002-about 30 building clearance plan actions were carried out including actual building demolition and the purchase of urban plots to prevent further construction. Demolished buildings of the entire surface area reaches more than 13,500mÃ ². Upgraded area in Magaluf Palma Nova tourist area by creating pedestrian zones and planting tree as to improve the overall quality of the area. 32 km cycling and walking path was built in Paseo de CalviÃ ¡ Environmental instruments Tax on water for conservation and awareness campaigns promoting its use and conservation established Recycling urban waste reduction plans to ensure 70% of all urban waste is separated at origin, facilitating reducing cost of recycling effort, minimizing land fill. Termination of sea dredging previously used to generate beaches and more environmentally friendly measures put in place to minimize erosion New regulating for limiting anchor damage harbor congestion caused by boats Establishment of marine park terrestrial protected areas as to protect wildlife ecosystems Economic instruments Impose an eco-tax in 2002 by Balearic Government; the funds were used to carry out CalviÃ ¡ council rehabilitation and regenerative projects. Voluntary instruments Renovation programmes for hotels, tourist accommodation and tourist facilities established to upgrade quality and attract a higher yield tourist Socio cultural instruments Programmes to combat crime, housing and other social issues Multi-cultural and social programmes such as dance, underwater photography and language classes established to help integrate immigrants into Mallorquin culture. CalviÃ ¡ has been recognized internationally for its efforts conclusion CalviÃ ¡ 2.0 The development of mass tourism in Calvia, Mallorca. 2.1 Definition of Mass Tourism Over the last decades, tourism has increasingly playing a vital role as a source of economic sector despite for many developed and developing countries. The tourism industry has given an opportunity to millions ofpeople to travel internationally, as travel and recreation are becoming more accessible to people,it is knowable to be the world leading economic sector during this decade.